Artist Kevin Caron's latest sculpture, The Runner, may look simple, but don't be fooled. "It has just six sections, but there is a lot of balance and behind-the-scenes complexity in this sculpture," explains Phoenix, Arizona-based Caron.

    He originally conceived of The Runner when commissioned to create a public art sculpture for the city of Chandler, Arizona. They chose another design (The Seed, which you can see at ), but Caron couldn't forget this sculpture.

    Now, four years later, he has finally created it, nine feet tall. "I just couldn't get this piece out of my mind," he admits. Ironically, the sculpture will debut at a solo show at Chandler's Center for the Arts. "That part is a coincidence," says Caron.

    Creating the artwork required some deep thought and, well, trickery. "My goal was to make it look like the sculpture was balancing

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  2. Welding of different types of steels, part 3

    Multiprocess welders who are to perform welding on low-manganese steels are aware that these steels are of the AISI type 1320, 1330, 1335, 1340, and 1345 designations. These steels come with carbon that is in the range of 0.18-0.48%, silicon that is in the range from 0.20-0.35%, and manganese that is in the range of 1.60-1.90%.

    With this type of steels the commercial welder does not require usage of reheating when the carbon and manganese are of the low range. When the carbon is around 0.25% then the commercial welder needs to preheat the steel to 120-150oC. After the welding is required post-heat treatment.

    When the arc welders are performing welding processes on low-alloy chromium steels, they know that these steels are of the AISI type 5015 to 5160 and electric furnace steels of 50100, 51100, and 52100. Here, in these steels the stick welder can expect manganese levels from 0.30-1.00%, carbon ranges from 0.12-1.10%, silicon levels from 0.20-0.30% and chromium levels

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  3. Welding of different types of steels, part 2

    In the previous part of this article was covered the first of the steel types, known by the commercial welders. Namely, these were the low-carbon steels and low-alloy steels. The commercial welders perform welding on two other types of steels, these being the medium-carbon steels and the high-carbon steels.

    The medium-carbon steels that the stick welders weld at include the AISI series C-1020 to C-1050. With these steels the composition is similar to the low-carbon steels, however the carbon here ranges from 0.25 to 0.50%, while the manganese is in the range between 0.60 to 1.65%.

    When the carbon and manganese are of the high level, the low-hydrogen type electrodes are recommended. The multiprocess welder usually prefers these welds when working on thick sections. In such cases sometimes preheating is required and it ranges from 150 to 260 Celsius degrees. Stick welders also require post-heating here, which relieves the stress and harness that is caused by the rapid

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